Taking an environmentally sensitive approach to pest management


Integrated Pest & Crop Management



AUTHOR

Wayne C. Bailey
University of Missouri
Division of Plant Sciences
(573) 882-2838
baileyw@missouri.edu

Alfalfa Weevil Larvae

Wayne C. Bailey
University of Missouri
(573) 882-2838
baileyw@missouri.edu

Published: April 13, 2010

Economic infestations of alfalfa weevil have been found in some southwest Missouri alfalfa fields. Although numbers of larvae vary depending on the field, most fields support weevil infestations which have either reached or are increasing toward economic levels. Alfalfa weevil grow through 4 worm (larval or instars) stages on their journey from egg to adult weevil. Adult weevils generally lay eggs inside alfalfa stems during warm days during fall, winter, and spring. Eggs hatch from early to late spring with 1st stage larvae crawling to the top of alfalfa plant stems to feed inside plant terminals. Larvae continue to feed inside plant terminals through development of the 2nd instar. Third and 4th instars feed on foliage outside of plant terminals often causing substantial decreases in forage yield and quality. Heavy defoliation also reduces alfalfa competition with weeds and may result in increased weed populations.

Producers in southwest and central Missouri are encouraged to scout alfalfa fields at this time to determine weevil numbers. If the economic threshold of 1 or more larvae per alfalfa stem is reached or exceeded, then treatment is justified. Proper scouting is the key to obtaining good estimates of weevil numbers. Alfalfa producers should scout alfalfa fields throughout the state as problems can quickly develop and result in substantial loss of forage yield and quality. Scouting for alfalfa weevil is best accomplished using a 3-5 gallon bucket and a sharp knife. Producers are encouraged to sample 10 alfalfa stems at each of 5 random locations in a field for a total of 50 stems per field. At each of the 5 locations the scout should carefully cup the terminal of each alfalfa stem and then cut the stem off near the soil surface. The stem is then carefully placed inside the bucket and vigorously tapped to dislodge any larvae present. It is necessary to cup the terminal with your hand during removal of the stem from of the plant to prevent the larvae from being flipped from the terminal during stem removal. If the alfalfa weevil population has reached the economic level of one or more larvae present per stem of alfalfa (50 or more larvae per 50 stems) and 30% or more of the alfalfa stems show feeding damage, then control is justified. Most weevils found by this scouting method will be in their 3rd or 4th larval stages of growth. Note: eggs laid on south facing slopes often hatch first in the spring due to receiving more heat units due to their location.

Several management options are available, although application of a foliar rescue insecticide is the most common management strategy used in most years. In addition to insecticides, early harvest, grazing, and biological control are other viable options depending on larval numbers, plant growthstage, and field conditions.

Insecticides -If an insecticide application is required in order to control alfalfa weevil larvae, select from the list of insecticides labeled and recommended for alfalfa weevil control on alfalfa. Rates are given as amount of product applied per acre.

Early Mechanical Harvest of alfalfa is an alternative to insecticide applications if the alfalfa is within 7-10 days of the normal harvest stage of 1/10 bloom. This season early harvest may be a viable option as alfalfa plants have grown rapidly with the cool, wet conditions experienced this spring. Early cutting will cause the death of most alfalfa weevil larvae through mechanical crushing by hay conditioners or dehydration from the sun following the removal of the alfalfa canopy. After forage removal, the field should be monitored to detect a possible resurgence in larval numbers.

Grazing is being used by some Missouri producers to reduce the numbers of alfalfa weevil eggs and larvae. Grazing is initiated when weevil numbers reach or are approaching the economic threshold and the alfalfa plants are more than 6-8 inches in height. Grazing is generally accomplished using a management intensive grazing method in which a large number of cattle are placed on a small amount of acres and quickly remove the alfalfa growth. As the alfalfa is grazed to normal harvest level, eggs and larvae that are present are destroyed. Data from Missouri indicate that alfalfa weevil larval numbers are reduced by about 98% with mechanical harvest and about 90% by cattle grazing in a management intensive grazing system. These reductions in larval numbers can effectively eliminate the risk from alfalfa weevil as long as most spring laid eggs have hatched. This method of alfalfa weevil control is not without risks. Fields should not be grazed when wet and susceptible to damage from cattle hooves. Bloat also must be a concern as producers must take precautions to prevent bloat from occurring to cattle. Your local extension office can provide additional information concerning grazing precautions. Producers should continue to scout alfalfa after grazing to determine whether larval or adult alfalfa weevil numbers again reach economic levels and require further control.

Biological Control is a long-term control strategy that can help keep alfalfa weevil numbers below damaging levels. Five species of biotic agents are now commonly found associated with the alfalfa weevil in this state: four parasites and a fungal disease. The parasites are all introduced species from Europe as is their host the alfalfa weevil. Bathyplectes curculionis, a larval parasite, moved into the state with the alfalfa weevil in the 1960s. Similarly, the fungal disease, Zoophthora phytonomi, was first detected in Missouri in the early 1970s. Both of these biotic agents occur throughout the state and cause some mortality of alfalfa weevil larvae. The three other parasites have a limited range in the state, but are increasing in distribution. The two larval parasite, Bathyplectes anurus and Oomyzus incertus, and an adult parasite, Microctonus aethiopoides, have been established in Missouri as a result of parasite release programs conducted during the 1970s and 1980s. These parasites have a limited distribution, but should increase in importance as they move to other Missouri counties.

Producers can help conserve and increase the number of parasites on their farms by using pesticides only when needed and leaving a small area of alfalfa standing when the first cutting is removed. The alfalfa that has not been treated with an insecticide and is not harvested during first cutting will serve as a reservoir for many parasites and predators that attack alfalfa weevil. This alfalfa can be harvested at second and later cuttings because most of these parasites will mature shortly after removal of first alfalfa harvest. The fungal pathogen (Zoophthora phytonomi) is most effective at causing larval mortality in wet years. However, the wet conditions experienced this spring seem to have little effect on weevil numbers to this point in the season. Infected alfalfa weevil larvae slow their feeding activities, turn from light green to pale yellow in color, and die within a few days of becoming infected by the fungal pathogen. If this pathogen develops early in the season it can decimate larval alfalfa weevil populations. Whether is does so this year Missouri is yet to be determined.

 

Table 1. Recommended Insecticides for Control of Alfalfa Weevil Larvae in Alfalfa - 2010
Chemical Name Common Name Rate of Formulated Material Rate of Active Ingredient (a.i.)
Beta-cyfluthrin *Baythroid XL 1.6 to 2.8 fl oz/acre 0.0125 to 0.022 lb a.i./acre
Cholopyrifos *Lorsban Advanced 1 to 2 pts/acre 0.5 to 1 lb a.i./acre
Chlorpyrifos 4E *Lorsban 4E
*numerous products
1 to 2 pts/acre
see specific labels
0.5 to 1 lb a.i./acre
see specific labels
Chlorpyrifos 4E plus
Gamma-cyhalothrin
*Cobalt 19.0 to 38.0 fl oz/acre  
Cyfluthrin *Tombstone 1.6 to 2.8 fl. oz/acre 0.025 to 0.044 lb a.i./acre
Gamma-cyhalothrin *Proaxis 2.56 to 3.84 fl. oz/acre 0.02 to 0.03 lb a.i./acre
Lambda-cyhalothrin *Warrior
*numerous products
2.56 to 3.84 fl. oz/acre
see specific labels
0.02 to 0.03 lb a.i./acre
see specific labels
Methyl Parathion *Chemnova Methyl 4EC 1 pt/acre 0.5 lb a.i./acre
Phosmet Imidan see specific label see specific label
Zeta-cypermethrin *Mustang Max EC 2.24 to 4.0 fl oz/acre 0.014 to 0.025 lb a.i./acre
Read and follow all label direction, precautions, and restrictions.
*Designated a restricted use product.
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REVISED: April 23, 2012