Trees and shade create a naturally pleasing environment in the landscape. However, it is difficult to grow grass under trees because not only the quantity but also the quality of the light changes in the shade. In full sun, light is in the “near red” range of wavelengths; in the shade it shifts to the “far red,” which is less effective in photosynthesis. In addition, dense canopies, particularly those of conifers, filter out the blue component of sunlight, which is critical for plant growth. The result of these changes is a reduction in photosynthesis and its products, including carbohydrates needed for plant growth.
Leaves, leaf cuticles and stems of plants are thinner in shade. Shoot density decreases as well. Plant tissues are succulent and there is an increase in susceptibility to environmental stresses and disease. Transpired moisture from trees and grass, and moisture from dew forming under trees, take longer to dissipate, and the additional moisture may contribute to an increased potential in turf diseases.
Shady conditions in combination with other plant stresses contribute to the difficulty of growing grasses under trees. For example, tree roots compete with turf for water and nutrients, and this competition can further weaken turf growing in shade. Allelopathic effects, such as the inhibitory effect of silver maple upon Kentucky bluegrass, are important between certain species of plants. Excessive organic matter from leaf litter will also inhibit grass. One or more of these factors make it particularly difficult to grow grass under sweet gum, maple and unpruned pin oak. On the other hand, grass is easier to grow under locust and poplar trees.
Success with growing grass in shade can be increased if the tree canopy is thinned and branches from the lower third of the tree are selectively removed. Also, trees can sometimes be removed without disrupting the harmony and function of the landscape.
Select and use grasses that have improved shade tolerance (Table 1). Most of the fine fescues (hard, sheep, spreading, slender creeping and Chewing’s) have very good shade tolerance. Tall fescue has good shade tolerance, while Kentucky bluegrass is the least shade tolerant of the coolseason grasses. However, selected varieties of Kentucky bluegrass do have moderate tolerance to shade – Glade, Nuglade, Challenger, Midnight, Nassau. Bermudagrass, zoysiagrass and buffalograss should not be used in shady locations. In areas where shade-tolerant grasses fail, consider shade-tolerant groundcovers or mulched beds instead of grass.
Pruning trees with dense canopies, such as maples, will allow additional light to pass through to the turfgrass sward. Prune lower branches to a height of six feet. On large trees, branches should be removed all the way back to the trunk or a main leader so that the area under the canopy is clear. Thinning shrubs in the landscape will improve air circulation and lower humidity. Before planting grasses, remove shallow tree feeder roots that compete with the turf for nutrients and water.
In Missouri, the hard, sheep, and Chewing’s fescues are usually preferred over the other fine fescues when using a monoculture in shady locations. Turf-type tall fescues may also provide an acceptable turf in moderate shade caused by trees.
Another shade-tolerant grass is rough stalk bluegrass. This grass does well in cool, wet conditions found in some shady locations. It performs well in the spring and fall but will die in the summer if moisture is lacking. Rough stalk bluegrass should not be used in lawns where only one or two large trees cause thinning of turf. It is a spreading grass and may escape, causing unattractive patches in sunny areas. This grass should be used in lawns only where several trees exist and other grasses have been tried without success.
Table 1. Species and cultivars for shaded areas
|Environment||Common name||Species||Selected cultivars|
|Light to moderate shade, dry||Hard fescue||Festuca longifolia||Aurora, Biljart, Discovery, Ecostar, Osprey, Reliant, Reliant II, Scaldis, Spartan, Waldina, Tournament|
|Sheep fescue||Festuca ovina||Bighorn, Azay|
|Spreading (strong creeping fescue||Festuca rubra spp. rubra||Flyer, Flyer II, Fortress, Ensylva, Pennlawn, Rondo, Ruby, Shademaster II|
|Slender creeping fescue||Festuca rubra spp. trichophylla||Dawson|
|Chewing’s fescue||Festuca rubra spp. commutata||Agram, Atlanta, Banner, Banner II, Brittany, Highlight, Jamestown, Jamestown II, Koket, Shadow, Shadow II, Tiffany, Victory, Victory II, Waldorf|
|Turf-type tall fescue||Festuca arundinacea||Adventure, Arid, Bonanza, Essential, Falcon, Falcon IV, Finelawn Petite, Houndog, Houndog V, Jaguar, Jaguar III, Jamboree, Rebel, Jr., Trident|
|Light shade, dry||Kentucky bluegrass*||Poa Pratensis||Absolute, Adelphi, Allure, America, Bristol, Challenger, Chateau, Coventry, Enmundi, Estate, Georgetown, Glade, Huntsville, Midnight, Nassau, Nugget, Nuglade|
|Light shade, wet||Perennial ryegrass||Lolium perenne||All star, Birdie II, Citation II, Cowboy, Elka, Fiesta II, Gator, Manhattan II, Palmer, Palmer III, Pennant, Pennant II, Regal, Repell|
|Light to moderate shade, wet||Rough stalk bluegrass||Poa trivialis||Colt, Laser, Laser II, Saber, Saber II|
|Note: This list is not comprehensive, and seed of listed cultivars may be unavailable in some localities. *Some Kentucky bluegrass cultivars will adapt to moderate shade.|
REVISED: August 1, 2012