The larvae of two weevils, the clover leaf weevil and the alfalfa weevil, may be found in Missouri alfalfa fields prior to first harvest. Although they both feed on alfalfa foliage and look similar in appearance, only the alfalfa weevil is considered a severe pest of alfalfa in this state. How do we tell them apart in the fi eld so we don't apply unneeded insecticide applications?
The following list compares identifying characteristics of larvae of these two alfalfa weevils:
The alfalfa weevil is an insect which benefi ts from mild weather during fall, winter, and spring months. When temperatures rise above 50 degrees Fahrenheit for several consecutive days during these seasons, adult weevils will deposit eggs in old stubble or in new spring growth of alfalfa. Although high numbers of alfalfa weevil eggs present in the spring do not always result in economic infestations, the potential for damage is greater in years when this condition exists. Alfalfa weevil eggs develop and eventually hatch after accumulating about 300 degree day heat units based on 48 degrees Fahrenheit. This means that infestations of alfalfa weevil larvae often occur first on south-facing slopes of alfalfa fields, because these slopes warm faster in spring.
Although problems with alfalfa weevil have yet to occur this spring, producers in the southern counties of Missouri should scout fields on a weekly schedule beginning now and continue through first harvest. Producer in central and northern counties should begin scouting for alfalfa weevil within the next two weeks. The first damage observed will be small feeding holes in alfalfa leaflets as they grow out of the terminals of plant stems. This minor foliage damage is caused by the 1st and possibly 2nd larval (worm) stages called instars. As larvae grow larger (3rd and 4th instars) they consume greater amounts of plant tissue and often cause substantial economic loss.
Scouting for alfalfa weevil is accomplished by randomly collecting 50 alfalfa stems (10 stems at 5 different locations) and tapping them into a white bucket. Larvae will generally be dislodged by this action and allow for an average number of larvae per alfalfa stem to be calculated. Caution should be used when collecting stems as larvae can be easily dislodged from the growing tip of the plant stem by rough handling. It is recommended that the top of the alfalfa stem be cupped in one hand while the plant stem is removed near the base of the stem by cutting with a knife. If an average of one or more larvae per stem is found and 30 percent of plants exhibit larval damage, then the economic threshold has been reached and control is justified.
The main management option for early infestations of alfalfa weevil larvae on small alfalfa is an application of a labeled insecticide. Early harvest of the alfalfa by either machine or livestock may be viable options for some producers in Missouri. If early harvest of alfalfa by machine is selected as a control strategy, then the crop is harvested approximately 7-10 prior to the normal plant growth stage of 1/10nth bloom. Missouri data indicate that alfalfa weevil larval numbers are reduced by about 95 - 98 percent with mechanical harvest and about 90 percent by cattle grazing in a management intensive grazing system. Producers using grazing as a control strategy must be aware of the bloat risk to cattle grazing green alfalfa and risk to the alfalfa stand due to hoof trampling during wet conditions. If an insecticide application is selected, a list of insecticides recommended for alfalfa weevil larval control follows.
|Recommended insecticides for larval alfalfa weevil management - 2008|
|Alfalfa weevil larvae:|
|Chemical name||Trade name||Rate of Formulated Material/Acre||Rate of Active
|Beta-cyfluthrin||*Baythroid XL||1.6 to 2.8 fl oz/acre||0.0125 to 0.022 lb a.i./acre|
|Carbofuran||*Furadan 4F||1/2 to 2 pts/acre||0.25 to 1 lb/acre|
|Chlorpyrifos 4E||*Lorsban 4E
|1 to 2 pts/acre
see specific labels
|0.5 to 1 lb/acre
see specific labels
|Chlorpyrifos 4E plus
|*Cobalt||19.0 to 38.0 fl oz/acre|
|Methyl Parathion||*Chemnova Methyl 4EC||1 pt/acre||0.5 lb a.i./acre|
|Gamma-cyhalothrin||*Proaxis||2.56 to 3.84 fl oz/acre||0.02 to 0.03 lb a.i./acre|
|Phosmet||Imidan||see specific label||see specific label|
|Zeta-cypermethrin||*Mustang Max||2.24 to 4.0 fl oz/acre||0.014 to 0.025 lb a.i./acre|
|Carbaryl||Sevin 4F||1.5 qts/acre||1.5 lb a.i./acre|
|Carbaryl||Sevin XLR Plus||1.5 qts/acre||1.5 lb a.i./acre|
|2.56 to 3.84 fl oz/acre
see specfic labels
|0.02 to 0.03 lb a.i./acre
see specific labels
|Read and follow all label direction, precautions, and restrictions. * Designated a restricted use product.|
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REVISED: October 2, 2015